Asking what Chinese medicine can treat is a little like asking what can Western medicine treat. Traditional Chinese medicine can benefit almost any condition through its combination of treatment methods. While it can treat many conditions it may not always be the best choice. For instance acupuncture could be used to relieve a toothache as could pain killing drugs provided by a Western doctor however a visit to the dentist may be a more effective treatment than either. A practitioner will be able to guide you on the specifics of whether the therapy is suitable for you or not.
While Acupuncture has been around for a long time, modern research into its benefits is being expanded. "The The Acupuncture Evidence Project - A comparative review (2017)" is the most comprehensive review into Acupuncture research. You can find a plain English summary here.